The GSM antenna, which is like a tall panel on BTS towers are for making connection between the subscriber and the BTS station. GSM antennas are covering 360 degree, so they are installed in three sectors, each covering 120 degree, according to the cell planning documents. There are different GSM antennas:
For 2.5 G: GSM 900 and 1800 is used.
The frequency of GSM 900 is 890~950 MHZ and for GSM 1800 is 1710~1880 MHZ
For 3G networks, GSM 2100 is used that the relavant frequencies are: GSM 2100 : 1900~2200 MHZ
For 4G networks GSM 2600 is used by the 2.6 MHZ frequency.
The most common size of GSM antennas used in Iran networks are 2580*262*116 mm.
The other connection that happens between BTS sites to transfer data to the MSC has several solutions. Use of fiber optic connection, microwave and E1 lines are among most common solutions. Currently in Iran, most of the connection are done by Microwave (MW) connections.
The MW antennas are in circular, solid and grid forms. MW antennas are point-to point antennas, so it is important to be installed in line of sight. The MW frequencies are very higher than GSM panel antennas, and are dangerious if radiated on human and live animals. MW frequency varies between 300 MHz to 300 GHz. The diameter of common MW antenas are 30, 60, and 120 cm.